Mobile and Hard-to-Reach Voters

Christian Hoops, Tobias Michael


By taking into account mobile device samples to not exclude Mobile-Only respondents, a better representation of the general population can be obtained. This leads to more accu-rate analyses and findings that closely reflect reality. Data are collected that provides more representative and dynamic analyses by using the Rolling Cross-Section Design (see Johnston/Brady 2002), which takes a cross-section and distributes interviewing in a controlled way over time. A strict contact scheme with a high contact density allows even Hard-to-Reach populations to be taken into account appropriately in the random sample. Minimal deviations from the sample and general population will be corrected at the conclusion by a dual frame assessment system developed by the Association of German Market and Social Researchers.

This paper investigates how the inclusion of Mobile-Only, Mostly-Mobile and Hard-to-Reach voters affects the estimates of voting behavior within the context of Germany. It be-gins by showing that these groups differ from the general population in terms of age, sex, employment, school graduation and income. Furthermore, there are significant differences in their political issues priorities and participation. Especially Hard-to-Reach voters have a higher voting intention and should be conducted.


CATI; Elections; Landline; Mobile; RCS; Voters

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